Sensational regeneration of brain inhabitants of the sea
Sensational regeneration of brain inhabitants of the deep sea discovered by an international team of scientists
Amazing ability to regenerate structures of the brain, scientists have found a fairly primitive, as previously thought, the deep sea dweller. Animal with exceptional properties and the organization of the nervous system called the sea ctenophore (Ctenophora).
Externally, they are very similar to jellyfish, and this similarity was the reason that the zoologists have long believed them to belong to the class of jellyfish. Only much later ctenophores identified in a special class with 6 units of its representatives. Comb jellies – it’s much more difficult to organized beings predators that hunting requires quite perfect the nervous system, which gives the ability to the good orientation and coordination.
These amazing marine life studied a group of scientists from the Universities of Florida and Washington, has joined forces with Russian biologists from the Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences. In subsequent phases are connected to the study of other scientists from Russia, USA, England and Holland.
It turned out that the comb jelly is a feature quite different than that of other members of the animal kingdom, the evolutionary path of development of the nervous system.
As the Leonid Moroz, leader of the group of scientists who conducted the study the University of Florida,
These sea creatures are extremely unusual, – so much so that one might think that they have nothing in common with the rest of the fauna that inhabit the Earth. The extent of their uniqueness is so high that they are represented by some aliens from other planets. But they exist and live with us, and we “discover” them again.
As the scientists, these animals differ downright “reactive” process speed posttraumatic regeneration of the nervous system. His rudimentary brain, better known as the aboral body, some of the representatives of this type of animal can fully recover within 3.5 days. Scientists have also observed an amazing picture of an experiment with a representative blade comb jellies – bolinopsisa (Bolinopsis), which restores your brain 4 times!
When decoding the genome of ten kinds of comb jellies, scientists used the latest genomic technologies and concluded that they are present unique genes that are absent in other animals. In addition, marine organism has unusual features of the regulation of the genes they have microsequence RNA possessed by all animals, without exception. Moreover, the comb engages the other neurotransmitters composition than the rest of the organism: neurotransmission processes have involved purely glutamate receptors. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and some others, which are used in the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons and between neurons and executive cells Ctenophore body uses.
A. The adult comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi
W. Rowing plate Ctenophore
S. Young comb (top view)
These results fundamentally change the stable outlook on the fact that the evolution of the nervous system of animals and humans took place in only one way known to science. The device features and functioning of the nervous activity of ctenophores suggest that the nervous system of a living being has passed another, different from the known to science, the path of formation and development. Scientists believe that ctenophores for some reason separated from other multicellular animals in the early stages of evolution, and there is about 600 million. Years ago. As a result, they had a unique among the terrestrial beings nervous system and muscles, which formed an independent way.
How many times have had to convince many generations of scholars, nature is fraught with many more mysteries and discoveries. Its apparent “simplicity” is a source of new, higher knowledge, which inevitably makes adjustments to our understanding of the essence of things and phenomena.
As said Leonid Moroz,
we too have simplified the process of evolution. Nature is proved to be much more diverse than we think about it. And full of innovations …
Scientists hope that a deeper and more thorough study of these natural phenomena – the ability of living creatures to regenerate – paving the way for the creation of new medical technologies for the treatment of patients with various diseases of the brain, both traumatic and degenerative origin.